From 2024 onwards, USB-C will become the universal standard for electronic devices in the European Union, applicable to all smartphones, cameras, headphones, keyboards, and more. What will be the impact?

Starting from 2024, USB-C will become the universal standard for electronic devices in the European Union. According to a statement from the European Commission on the 30th, USB-C will serve as the universal port for the European Union, allowing consumers to charge any brand of device using any USB-C charger. The “universal charging” requirement will apply to all handheld phones, tablets, digital cameras, headphones, portable speakers, handheld gaming devices, e-readers, earbuds, keyboards, mice, and portable navigation systems. By 2026, these requirements will also extend to laptops. In 2024, USB-C will become the universal standard for electronic devices in the European Union.

EU Mandates USB-C as Universal Charging Standard

The European Commission announced this afternoon that starting from 2024, USB-C will become the universal standard for electronic devices in the EU. “A long-awaited move. This means better charging technology, less electronic waste, and finding the charger you need will be easier!”


  • Users will be able to use any USB-C charger to power their devices, irrespective of brand.
  • This will help prevent manufacturers from unreasonably restricting charging speeds and ensure that charging rates are consistent when using any compatible device charger.
  • Consumers will be able to purchase new electronic devices without new chargers. This will limit the number of chargers on the market or unused. Reducing unnecessary resource wastage!

Unified Charging: A Leap Towards Sustainability in 2024

As 2024 heralds in, another great piece of news surfaces. This significant change means all mobile phones, tablets, and cameras will adopt a standard charger, bringing standardized fast-charging technology. This move is expected to drastically reduce electronic waste, marking a significant win for environmental conservation.

Moreover, with the implementation of this new regulation, global consumers will no longer need to equip each device with a different charger. Instead, they will be able to use a universal charger across a variety of small and medium-sized electronic devices.

The European Union emphasizes that this requirement to adopt the USB-C interface is not targeted at any single company. However, industry insiders believe that the EU must have considered that Apple would be the company most affected by this change.

Apple, a U.S. company, has frequently clashed with the EU in recent years over monopoly, anti-competitive behavior, and tax evasion issues. In 2016, the EU accused Apple of avoiding $15 billion in taxes, but Apple won the court appeal in 2020 and was spared from the fine.

In 2020, France also demanded Apple pay a fine of $1.1 billion for anti-monopoly reasons; although this amount was reduced to $370 million, the dispute between Apple and the EU is far from over.

Nevertheless, as one might expect, Apple is not pleased. This reform’s primary obstacle was Apple itself. The European Commission had a long-standing struggle with Apple over the unified interface policy, and Apple eventually compromised. In September 2023, Apple announced at its launch event that its new iPhone 15 series would adopt the USB-C interface.

More celebratory is the EU’s statement that this move could save consumers 250 million euros annually. According to Thierry Breton, EU Internal Market Commissioner, this initiative will lead to over 1000 tons of electronic waste and 200 kilograms of carbon dioxide reduced annually. It will also pave the way for the emergence and maturity of technologies like wireless charging without letting so-called “innovation” become a source of market fragmentation and inconvenience for consumers.

The European Commission’s newly announced policy is not expected to take immediate effect on January 1, 2024, but will undergo a specific adaptation period. By the end of 2024, it’s anticipated that all mobile phones, tablets, and other electronic devices will mandatorily use a universal charger.

The EU’s Move Towards a Unified USB Type-C Charging Standard

The European Union has long aspired for a single charging solution for all electronic devices on its market. Earlier this year, it passed a legislation supporting the use of the USB Type-C interface across a range of devices including mobile phones and tablets. This law compelled iPhone 15 to switch from the traditional Lightning connector to the USB Type-C interface.

The main advantage of the USB-C interface lies in its symmetrical design. It allows the cable to be inserted in any orientation, eliminating frustration related to the directional limitations and identification difficulties associated with previous USB ports, making it comparable to Apple’s reversible Lightning connector (used in iPhones prior to iPhone 15).

Today, the European Commission announced that USB Type-C will become the universal standard for electronic devices in the EU starting from 2024. In a recent post about X, the commission stated:

“The wait is finally over. From 2024, USB-C will become the universal standard for electronic devices in the EU. This means better charging technology, less electronic waste, and less hassle finding the charger you need!”

In a press release, the European Commission announced this move advocates for technological innovation in the field of electronic device charging and avoids market fragmentation. According to the EU, the “universal charging” solution using USB Type-C will be applicable to the following devices from 2024:

  • Mobile Phones
  • Tablets
  • Digital Cameras
  • Headsets
  • Headphones
  • Portable Speakers
  • Handheld Game Consoles, E-readers
  • Earbuds
  • Keyboards
  • Microphones
  • Portable Navigation Devices

The agency also stated that by 2026, all laptops sold in the European market will be equipped with the USB Type-C interface. The EU will also provide an “adaptation period” for the industry to allow manufacturers sufficient time to adapt to the new regulations.

Reportedly, there were some disagreements between the European Commission and Apple regarding the unified charging interface policy and went through a period of “struggle”.

In 2009, there were more than 30 different charging connectors in the market, supervised by the European Commission, including Apple among the 14 mobile phone manufacturers adjusted, reducing the number of interfaces to three: USB Type-C, Lightning, and Micro-USB.

According to a 2019 report released by the EU, half of the chargers sold with mobile phones in 2018 were equipped with Micro-USB interfaces, 29% were equipped with USB Type-C interfaces, and 21% used Lightning interfaces, the latter primarily for Apple phones, while the former two were mainly used for Android phones.

In September 2021, the European Commission officially proposed a motion planning to make USB Type-C the universal charging interface for all smartphones, tablets, digital cameras, headphones, portable speakers, game consoles, and other electronic devices in the EU, with a transition period of 24 months.

The EU pointed out that this policy is not specifically targeting Apple, and all electronics manufacturers must switch to the new standard charging interface during the transition period. For Apple products, aside from the current phase which relies entirely on the Lightning interface for Apple mobile phones, all electronics manufacturers must change the charging interface to the USB Type-C.

Apple had expressed opposition to this policy, citing concerns that overly strict charger management would stifle innovation and harm consumer interests.

However, Apple’s opposition did not hinder the progress of the related legislation.

On October 4, 2022, the European Parliament passed the law on unified portable smart device charging interfaces with an overwhelming majority. According to the law, from the end of 2024, all new mobile phones, tablets, digital cameras, portable navigation systems, and other portable smart devices must use the USB Type-C interface for charging. From 2026, USB Type-C will also become the standard interface for laptop chargers.

Chinese media previously reported that the USB-C interface is gradually becoming the mainstream charging interface and is gradually expanding to non-3C devices. The USB-C interface is technically mature and its cost is gradually decreasing.

Overall, the unified charging interface policy brings many benefits, such as saving resources and convenience for users. However, due to the commercial interests involved behind the scenes, implementing the unified interface through administrative means is not an easy task.

Today’s announcement summary from the EU is as follows:

  • Electronic Devices to Use a Unified USB Type-C Charging Interface: Users can use any USB-C charger to charge their devices, irrespective of brand.
  • Unified Fast Charging Technology: Prevents different brands from unreasonably restricting charging speeds. It also helps ensure the same charging speed when using any compatible device’s charger.
  • Separation of Chargers from Electronic Devices in Sales: Consumers will be able to purchase new electronic devices without new chargers. This will limit the number of chargers on the market.
  • Providing Better Visual and Written Information to Consumers: Brands need to provide relevant visual and written information about charging characteristics. This includes the device’s power requirements, whether it supports fast charging, etc.

I didn’t want to complain, but every time my phone is about to run out of battery and I need to charge it, the thought of finding a compatible charger plug just keeps me going until it completely runs out of power!

Universal USB-C Charging Standard in the European Union

The European Union has introduced a new law to standardize the charging interface for mobile devices, including smartphones, tablets, digital cameras, headphones, portable speakers, handheld gaming consoles, e-readers, earbuds, keyboards, mice, and portable navigation systems. Here’s an overview of the key points of this development:

In the past, except for Apple devices, most mobile devices used USB-C interfaces.

This new law aims to make it easier for consumers to find compatible chargers, offering greater convenience.

Around 40% of consumers in the European Union complained about the lack of charger compatibility in 2020.

The European Commission proposed the standardization of mobile phone chargers within the EU and the adoption of USB-C as the universal charging interface in October 2021.

The new proposal aims to allow consumers to use a common USB-C charger for charging devices from any brand.

It also intends to prevent certain phone manufacturers from limiting charging speeds, ensuring compatibility with fast charging technologies.

Manufacturers will be required to sell electronic products separately from chargers, giving consumers the freedom to choose their chargers.

Apple is among the companies targeted by this law due to their proprietary charging solutions.

The proposal was approved by a vote with 602 in favor, 13 against, and 8 abstentions, with a transition period of 24 months.

In June 2022, the European Parliament and the European Council agreed to adopt USB Type-C as the standard interface for charging portable electronic devices, including mobile phones, tablets, and digital cameras.

Starting from 2024, all new devices within the EU must use the USB Type-C standard.

As of 2024, USB-C becomes the universal standard for electronic devices in the European Union, allowing consumers to use any USB-C charger for any brand of device.

The “universal charging” requirement applies to all handheld smartphones, tablets, digital cameras, headphones, portable speakers, handheld gaming consoles, e-readers, earbuds, keyboards, mice, and portable navigation systems.

The transition period has been extended to 40 months, and it may be further extended to cover more devices in the future.

This initiative benefits consumers by simplifying charging and reducing electronic waste.

Around 2009, there were up to 20-30 different charging interfaces in the market, but it gradually evolved over time.

The main interfaces were USB Type-C, Lightning, and Micro-USB.

This standardization is expected to bring even more convenience to consumers in the future.

Apple initially opposed the move, citing concerns about potential impacts on innovation, but the law proceeded without their opposition.

The EU also warned Apple not to restrict the functionality of USB-C cables, threatening to ban iPhone sales in the EU after the law takes effect.

As a result, Apple made necessary changes, and their latest products now comply with the required interface.

Ultimately, the focus is on providing convenience to consumers, and any improvements that make life easier are worth promoting.

If “technological innovation” causes inconvenience for consumers, it may be better to avoid unnecessary complications.

The Ideal vs. The Reality of USB-C Standardization in the EU

The Ideal: The European Union envisions a unified USB-C standard for charging and data interfaces across various electronic devices, aiming to make it easier for people to use chargers and transfer data.

The Reality: USB-C standardization is primarily a visual uniformity, meaning it’s “unification on the surface.” In practice, it has created more confusion. Previously, data cables had distinct appearances that allowed users to identify compatibility at a glance.

Distinct visual cues for cable compatibility are now lacking.

For instance, in the past, iPhone charging cables were unmistakably Lightning cables. You could plug them in without second-guessing. However, with the prevalence of USB-C, the external appearance alone no longer provides clear differentiation. The only way to know now is to test each cable individually for charging, fast charging, data transfer, and data transfer speed.

Can you still accurately identify the right Type-C cable for your device based on its appearance?

So, the European Union’s move has both its pros and cons. On the positive side, it has indeed standardized the external appearance of USB-C, making various cables physically compatible. On the downside, beneath the unified exterior, there is a great deal of protocol confusion. The pin configurations inside the USB-C connectors vary significantly, leading to unprecedented chaos. You can never tell from the outside what kind of USB-C cable you are dealing with.

To illustrate, a MacBook Pro’s USB-C cable cannot charge an LED light stick with a USB-C port, and this cable also cannot connect to a Canon camera to retrieve photos. Conversely, the charging cable provided by the LED light stick cannot be used to power a smartphone or Mac.

In conclusion, while the European Union has standardized USB-C externally, it should also address the confusion stemming from diverse protocols and pin configurations. At the very least, there should be a way to visually distinguish compatibility, or else, under the guise of external uniformity, it will only lead to greater protocol chaos.

Hopes for USB-C Standardization in Small Household Appliances

I hope that in the future, even small household appliances like electric shavers will be mandated to use USB-C interfaces.

By the way, the electric shaver I personally use from a certain domestic brand already has a USB-C interface. Not only is it convenient for charging, but it also has a long battery life. Moreover, it works much better than the well-known foreign brand electric shaver I used before.

Ever since the iPhone 15 series started using USB-C interfaces, I now carry a Huawei 65W dual-port gallium nitride charger with me when I go out—one port for charging my Huawei phone and the other for my PC and iPhone 15 Pro Max.

Although all smartphones now use USB-C ports, almost every brand has its own charging protocol. Unfortunately, the compatibility of charging protocols between different manufacturers' chargers is quite poor.

I really hope that all smartphone manufacturers can adopt the same charging protocol, allowing for universal fast charging with any cable. However, this might potentially stifle innovation in this area for different brands.

My suggestion is, it’s okay for each brand to have its own protocol, but what if each brand’s charger could support their proprietary protocol and also be compatible with a commonly accepted universal protocol?

For example, using a Huawei charger to charge a Huawei phone can achieve a maximum charging power of 88W. If you use a Huawei charger to charge other brand phones, it should still provide at least 50W of charging power.

Similarly, chargers from other brands could offer the maximum charging power supported by their own phones when charging their own devices (some might reach 150W or even higher). When charging devices from other brands, they should still provide a minimum of 50W.

A Positive Development, Saving Money in the Process

This is a positive development and can lead to significant cost savings.

Regarding the standards, the issue primarily lies in the incompatibility of different fast charging standards. Some have mentioned that a certain manufacturer doesn’t support the PD standard. This is not entirely the manufacturer’s fault but rather a result of U.S. sanctions. The U.S. USB-IF organization restricted Huawei from using the PD standard.

It’s worth noting that while PD support might be lacking, I found that the device supports Qualcomm’s QC 2.0 protocol. I couldn’t find specific information on this, but it seems to have been authorized in the past.

In my opinion, the government should step in and collaborate with domestic manufacturers to establish a fast charging national standard independent of U.S. influence. All domestic manufacturers should be required to ensure compatibility with this standard. This approach can also be adopted for devices sold within the country, similar to the practice in the European Union. Why shouldn’t we do it too?

It should have been this way from the beginning. But I procrastinated until now, and couldn’t bear it anymore, so I finally compromised.

Up to now, I still adhere to my own interface. I wonder if it’s because I’m upholding my noble values or if I’m determined to go down a dark path?

But fortunately, I finally made the change.

From a customer’s perspective, from a user experience perspective, it’s probably better to make the change.

Standardization and globalization are the right way to go.

Please choose a hero that suits you:

EU Announces Universal USB-C Standard for Electronic Devices Starting 2024

The long-debated legislation has finally been officially announced, even prompting changes in the interface of the iPhone 15.

The European Commission has declared that, starting from 2024, USB-C will become the universal standard for electronic devices within the European Union. This move is aimed at providing better charging technology, reducing electronic waste, and making it easier to find compatible chargers.

For the specific document details, please refer to: {EU Common Charging Standard}

The “common charging” requirement will apply to all handheld mobile phones, tablets, digital cameras, headphones, headsets, portable speakers, handheld gaming consoles, e-readers, earplugs, keyboards, mice, and portable navigation systems from 2024. These requirements will also extend to laptops by 2026. A transition period before implementation will give the industry ample time to adjust.

Specific aspects include:

  • Unified Charging Ports for Electronic Devices

USB-C will become the common port, allowing consumers to use any USB-C charger for their devices, regardless of the brand.

  • Harmonized Fast Charging Technology

Harmonization will prevent different manufacturers from limiting charging speeds arbitrarily, ensuring consistent charging rates when using any compatible charger.

  • Separating Charger Sales from Electronic Device Sales

Consumers will be able to purchase new electronic devices without the need for new chargers, limiting the number of chargers on the market or lying unused. It is estimated that reducing the production and disposal of new chargers will decrease electronic waste by 980 tons annually.

  • Providing Better Visual and Written Information for Consumers

Manufacturers will need to provide relevant visual and written information about charging characteristics, including power requirements for devices and support for fast charging. This will help consumers determine if their existing chargers meet the requirements of new devices or assist them in selecting compatible chargers. Combined with other measures, this will help consumers limit the purchase of new chargers and save at least €2.5 billion annually in unnecessary charger costs.

Three labels will indicate whether a product includes a charger, does not include a charger, or specifies charger specifications.

From a consumer’s perspective, this is a positive development, and the change in the iPhone 15 interface aligns with the EU’s requirements. According to the EU’s document, as long as a “compatible” charger is used in the future, a consistent charging rate should be provided. It remains to be seen how manufacturers will respond, although most electronic devices currently support the PD protocol, fast charging above 100W still relies on proprietary protocols.

The most significant impact of this legislation is likely to be the change in the iPhone interface (which has already occurred), followed by the separate sale of charging adapters and potential changes in proprietary protocols. It is yet unknown how manufacturers will handle this and whether they will abandon proprietary protocols to enhance the speed of universal charging.

Universal Adoption of USB-C: A Mixed Blessing for Different Devices

The widespread adoption of USB-C in smartphones and tablets is undoubtedly a positive development. However, the implications for other devices vary.

While many devices have already transitioned to USB-C, not all of them are compatible with the Power Delivery (PD) protocol. This means that you may still need to keep A2C cables and adapters on hand, as having the same physical interface but incompatible protocols can lead to complications.

Smartphones and tablets are generally more accommodating in this regard, as most USB-C devices, unless they are significantly outdated, can support the PD protocol to some extent. It may result in slower charging speeds, but they can usually manage. However, for smaller electronic appliances, complete incompatibility with the PD protocol may render them unable to charge.

When it comes to laptops, particularly ultrabooks, USB-C charging has become mainstream in recent years. Even manufacturers like Apple and Microsoft, who have their proprietary magnetic charging connectors, have embraced USB-C compatibility. Promoting the use of USB-C has indeed brought convenience.

However, enforcing a universal USB-C power requirement for high-performance laptops or gaming laptops may not be ideal. It would be beneficial to allow these devices to retain their proprietary connectors.

USB-C Interface: Not Ideal for High-Power Supply

USB-C, despite its widespread adoption, wasn’t originally designed with high-power supply in mind.

USB-C has 12 pairs of pins:

  • 2 pairs for low-speed data transfer (USB 2.0)
  • 4 pairs for high-speed data transfer (Tx and Rx)
  • 2 pairs for charging protocol communication (Sub and CC)
  • 2 pairs for positive power supply (VBus)
  • 2 pairs for negative power supply (GND)

The VBus is adjacent to the CC and SBU pins on one side and to the Rx and Tx pins on the other side, with a pin spacing of only 0.25mm.

With prolonged use or a loose connector, slight mechanical twisting and sliding can lead to a short circuit between VBUS and CC and SBU pins. Additionally, debris and moisture can also result in a short circuit between VBUS and CC, SBU, RX, and TX pins.

According to the USB PD protocol, VBUS can have a maximum charging voltage of up to 20V, while PD 3.0 goes even further, raising the voltage to 48V. Once a short circuit occurs, the surrounding data pins also face the same high voltage. The consequences can range from damage to the charging module in milder cases to motherboard damage in severe cases.

Personal opinion: To enable high-power supply with a limited number of pins, it might be best not to have GND pins at all. Similar to DC round connectors, the interface’s casing could serve as the GND, and the VBus pins could be placed on both sides, increasing the spacing between VBus and data pins. It remains to be seen whether electrical design standards can accommodate such a change.

After this standardization, it may take a long time before the next-generation electrical design for USB interfaces, which is more robust, emerges.

Reposting a review from a passionate individual, yzxstudio, who sells USB current and voltage meters on a certain e-commerce platform:

Why the Well-Known PD3.1-240W Won’t Become Universal:

From May 28, 2021, to April 2023, not a single fully functional Type-C port with support for charging input on a laptop has been made available!!! This record is still being updated!!! (Excluding various USB tables, deceiving chargers, testers, and small gadgets; specifically referring to the PD3.1 tier with a voltage greater than or equal to 28V, power greater than or equal to 140W, and a communication rate greater than or equal to 10Gbps, with full functionality)

1: Fatal Hardware Bugs in the C Port: Generally, C ports sandwich the VBUS high voltage positive pole between a group of small signals. Frequent insertion and removal, mold accuracy issues, or wear and tear can cause CC short circuits to VBUS. There are four short-circuit opportunities when it’s a simple USB 2.0 charging port, as indicated in the green box in the figure below; most devices can only withstand 5.5V. For USB 3.1 and higher-speed C ports, there can be as many as eight short-circuit opportunities, as indicated in the purple box. These directly connect to the CPU South Bridge or the graphics core with a voltage resistance of 3.6V, and short-circuiting to 5V can result in severe damage, including blowing up the South Bridge or CPU. Some people might argue that the interface has protection measures like surge protection ESD and TVS; indeed, these are only for mild static electricity protection. For PD3.1 with 48V and 240W, what can a sesame-sized fuse do for you? This energy can directly lift the CPU’s lid!

2: Load Disconnection Arcing: Direct current arcs are dangerous because they can’t be extinguished. So even at very low voltages, arcs can be long. Friends with power supplies and resistive loads can test how long a 48V 5A arc can be, and whether it’s longer than the C port pin spacing. In the future, the C port contacts will need to be made of platinum, or else a few arcing incidents will burn them out. The odor of ozone can be smelled after multiple plug-and-unplug cycles at 20V 5A. The performance of PD3.1-48V-5A can be seen in this test report from the China Information and Communication Research Institute (it’s really horrifying): {Test Report}

3: Excessive Voltage Difference: Charger design has to consider both 5V or lower and 48V outputs, resulting in a tenfold difference in voltage. Achieving this with a single circuit results in a 10x difference in duty cycle, and the efficiency is pitiful. Implementing multiple circuits? Can you bear the cost? Power circuit power transistors also suffer from excessive voltage differences; the greater the difference, the higher the risk of damage. Higher voltage resistance comes with higher costs, and the resistance for laptops is at least 60V, three times that of desktops with 20V resistance and twice that of laptops with 30V resistance. If you really want 48V direct supply, you probably have to do secondary voltage reduction first, dropping from 48V to 12-20V before supplying power to the CPU and graphics card. The circuit becomes complex, takes up extra space, and transfers the heat that should have been in the charger to the laptop internally.

4: Non-Uniform Protocols: PD3.1 only provides a range. Even if it does exist, each company will do its own thing without a unified standard. In the end, nothing will be compatible with each other, and it’s better to make a DC port charger yourself, preventing knockoff encrypted DC chargers. Currently, PD2.0 is like this; for most laptops with over 65W power, third-party chargers limit you to 65W, regardless of how big your device’s power is or whether it’s PD100.0 or a mobile phone with hundreds or thousands of watts of fast charging, they are all capped at 65W.

5: Laptops Can Only Charge Through the C Port: To provide external power to laptops, wasting a fully functional C port? Only Apple, a radical idiot, dares to do this, right? Apple, being not so idiotic, also acknowledged the PD3.1 to magnetic suction independent power supply, separating power supply and data is evidently better.

6: 48V Is Already Unsafe: Celebrating electric death or explosion with no one to blame is a common occurrence; celebrating low-voltage electrical appliances like chargers also need 3C certification. Celebrating everything, including DIY PD3.1, is disappearing. Because there’s no 3C, every complaint results in a fatality.

In conclusion, USBIF is extremely eager to promote PD3.1. Isn’t it evident by now? They even deleted the 100W of the old PD, including the EMARK specification, and only retained 60W and 240W, eliminating all intermediate power levels. This can be seen as a frenzy. However, after more than a year of promotion, is there any manufacturer willing to input 28V or more into their devices with a Type-C port, costing over a thousand yuan? If such a device exists…

I’ll personally purchase it and livestream a CC short circuit to VBUS and arcing experiment to see who’s to blame for the burnout. If Apple’s short circuit burns the motherboard, it falls under “accidental damage,” and the buyer takes the blame.

On a brighter note, there’s one possibility for PD3.1 to survive: similar to Apple’s 140W, provide an additional adapter that converts the C port PD3.1 charger into a traditional DC port for laptop power. This could be the only way for PD3.1 to exist while claiming to support it, preventing short circuits and not occupying the full-featured C port.

A collection of various C port burn cases: {Bilibili Video}

Here are some tips to prevent C port burning:

0: Due to early CC voltage resistance requirements being only 5.5V, burnouts are horrific. Starting from late 2018, USBIF enforced a 25V voltage resistance requirement, so new devices, especially those with only USB 2.0, can safely be plugged and unplugged without burning. USB tables, charging treasures, and car chargers that I sell can withstand CC short circuits to VBUS. Burnouts are only common in devices and older phones from before 2019 or C ports with USB 3.0 and higher speeds.

1: Burnouts occur during charging and unplugging because there’s no voltage when inserting the plug; there’s voltage only after PD handshake.

2: Pull out vertically, don’t use cables that are too loose or too tight, don’t charge while playing, and don’t wiggle it left and right due to tightness. The C port hardware safety clearance is only 0.2mm wide, about the width of two human hairs. Wiggling it left and right can cause a short circuit if it goes out of tolerance, and being too tight may result from mold issues. Charging while playing may cause wiggling and lead to short circuits.

3: It’s advisable to turn off the 220V power first before unplugging the cable for safety.

4: Or unplug the charger first and then the device. Even if the charger side short circuits and burns out, it only results in a CC short circuit to VBUS, which doesn’t damage the CPU or South Bridge and significantly reduces repair costs.

5: Use USB 2.0 cables for charging whenever possible; don’t use USB 3.0 or higher cables for charging. Try to use cables that have only 2.0 pins, not those with many pins, to greatly reduce the chance of shorting to high-speed signal lines.

6: Use cables with EMARK whenever possible. Currently, no EMARK has a voltage resistance of over 5.5V, but if short-circuited to VBUS, EMARK can withstand ground breakdown and release most of the short-circuit voltage, with a chance of protecting the device from burning.

7: Don’t use any magnetic suction to C port cables; due to the slanted insertion and poor contact of magnetic suction contacts, if the ground wire disconnects first, it’s equivalent to a direct short circuit of VBUS to all other pins. This is also why various plugs have long ground wires.

8: Don’t use C port chargers with exposed pins on the sides; the structure is prone to wear and short circuits.

Common short-circuit failure summary:

VBUS short-circuit to CC: Highest incidence rate; after a short circuit, PD fast charging functionality is lost, possibly only on one side. High voltage flows from the CC protocol IC to the CPU, causing CPU damage, which is a severe issue for Apple laptops.

VBUS short-circuit to differential pairs: Moderate incidence rate; as the differential pairs lead directly to the South Bridge, laptops usually suffer South Bridge damage, while those with U-integrated boards suffer complete failure. In the case of laptops with integrated boards, the C port often permanently fails.

VBUS short-circuit to SBU: Lowest incidence rate; these channels include EMARK channels and analog audio headphone use. After a short circuit, the cable may be damaged or unable to handle 5A, affecting analog audio output.

Speaking of something unrelated

I’ve always felt that some products have been ruined by smartphones, or maybe I’ve become spoiled myself. Things like keyboards, mice, razors, and game controllers really don’t need to have built-in batteries because they don’t require the extreme slimness and waterproofing that smartphones do.

When your keyboard, mouse, or controller runs out of battery, you have to plug in a cable and use it while it charges, and this experience is really unpleasant. Simply replacing the batteries seamlessly is the most comfortable option.

There’s no need for them to use lithium batteries; regular AA batteries would suffice. That’s why I really like the Xbox controller.