Chinas Submarine Technology Innovations Americas Era of Comprehensive Leadership is Coming to an End How should we evaluate Chinas Submarine Technology Level? What does this advancement signify?

The era where US submarines dominate over China is coming to an end, the US Wall Street Journal reported on the 20th with this title, stating that as Chinas submarine technology and underwater detection capabilities improve, a major gap between the Chinese and US military is narrowing, which means that the era of absolute dominance for the US in the waters surrounding China is coming to an end The report expresses concern that this will have a significant impact on the US military plans to address potential conflicts in the Taiwan Strait The article states that in the past few decades, the US has not had to worry too much about Chinese submarines because they were loud and easy to track, while the Chinese military had difficulty detecting the USs ultra-quiet submarines However, Chinas submarine technology has now made progress Satellite imagery shows that earlier this year, a Chinese nuclear-powered attack submarine was launched, replacing propellers with pump jet propulsion systems The report states that this is the first appearance of the latest noise reduction technology on Chinese submarines The Wall Street Journal points out that submarines usually go through several years of prototype stages before reaching their final design, and academic research papers indicate that China is still studying other submarine noise reduction technologies Based on available information, former US Navy officer Christopher Carlson believes that the noise reduction effectiveness of Chinas new submarines has greatly improved, making it really difficult to detect such quiet submarines February 15, 2023, Taizhou, Jiangsu, the first batch of domestically produced conventional power attack submarines Submarine 274 at the Naval Vessel Culture Park Image source Visual China US media sighs Chinas submarine technology innovation, the era of comprehensive US dominance is coming to an end

Advances in Chinese Attack Nuclear Submarines

To be honest, even the latest SSNs in our military still have a certain gap in overall technological level compared to Virginia-class attack submarines. So, the Yankees' claims of praising and asking for money from Congress are typical.

On the other hand, it will take some time for our military’s SSN production capacity to ramp up. The current timeline for underwater capabilities is somewhat similar to when the second batch of Type 052C appeared and the first batch of Type 052D surfaced. Is there progress compared to before? Yes. However, have we reached the desired level? Obviously, we haven’t.

Recently, there have been revealed images and models of new attack submarines. The vertical launch system in the center of the hull, the pump-jet propulsion, and the improved shape of the conning tower are the highlights.

Leaving other factors aside, since underwater matters are quite sensitive, we can only say that we need to quickly increase our quantity and catch up.

This vertical launch system is obviously capable of launching YJ-18 and YJ-XX missiles. With a range of over 1,000 kilometers for the submarine-launched version, it adds an extra level of threat to our A2/AD system.

Just imagine how powerful this thing can be underwater.

Oh, if this can be installed on submarines, then the Type 09IIIB would be at least ahead of Virginia-class in terms of shipborne ASBMs/hypersonic capabilities:

Just look at the elongated hull resembling a tapeworm, it’s truly unattractive.

Summary: Technical limitations of China’s nuclear submarines are uncertain. Design is crucial, including internal details and shell selection. The specific performance of China’s reactor is unknown. However, the US may exaggerate China’s capabilities. The technological gap between China and the US in nuclear submarines is smaller than in the air force.

Title: Technological Gap in China’s Nuclear Submarines The biggest technological bottleneck for our country’s nuclear submarines at present is debatable, whether it is the reactor or the design, no one can say for sure. It’s best to be discreet about underwater matters, so not many people dare to delve into this issue just to boost confidence for internet users.

What we know now is that the level of materials and electronic equipment (including but not limited to electronic countermeasures, sonar, radar, and operational command) is definitely on par with that of the United States.

However, design is a very influential factor on combat effectiveness. It is not about the intuitive aspects like the external fluid enclosure, but rather the details such as the internal compartments and even the pathways to the reactor, as well as the choice between single or double hull.

As for the reactor… to be honest, the specific performance of our country’s nuclear reactors for underwater use is all speculation online. No one knows the exact performance.

But what Americans say should also be taken with a grain of salt. I’m not saying that our technology is definitely not good, but:

  1. After the end of the Cold War, especially in the past twenty years, Americans have falsified weapon system data like nobody’s business, even more so than the Japanese.

  2. The United States has declined in many industrial technological fields. If they can’t even produce a visible integrated mast, it is hard to believe that their technology has not been lost or progressed in invisible areas.

  3. From what I understand, the equipment level and combat effectiveness of the PLA (People’s Liberation Army) have always fluctuated between being seen as primitives in underground caves and heavenly beings in the eyes of the US military, depending on whether Congress allocates funds. But this should also be based on evidence… like when they don’t have funds, they are seen as underground caves, and when they have funds, they are seen as heavenly beings. In reality, Americans have another way of judging: when they don’t have a technological advantage over you, they will praise you, but when they do have a technological advantage, they will say that what you have is nothing special.

So for now, it seems that our country’s nuclear submarines have not yet exerted technological pressure on the United States, at least not to the same extent as the Air Force and Rocket Force equipment.

However, everyone should not lose heart. In a sense, the technological gap between our country’s nuclear submarines and the United States is smaller than that of the Air Force equipment…

Revolutionary Axle-less Pump

If it is this axial-less pump, it is indeed a technological breakthrough.

After all

The development of China’s latest 096-type strategic nuclear submarine

Currently, only six countries in the world have nuclear submarines: the United States, Russia, China, the United Kingdom, France, and India. The total number of active nuclear submarines worldwide is 146. The United States has 71, Russia has 37, China has 16, the United Kingdom has 11, France has 9, and India has 2.

Speaking of pump-jet propulsion systems, we must first talk about the source of noise in submarines. Hydrodynamic noise, mechanical noise, and cavitation noise are known as the three major noises of submarines. Mechanical noise is the noise produced by the rotation of the main shaft, circulating pump, and reduction gears. Hydrodynamic noise is the noise generated when irregular or undulating water flows past a moving submarine. Cavitation refers to the formation of a low-pressure suction surface on the back when the propeller rotates at high speed, creating a large number of bubbles, namely cavitation. The noise produced when these bubbles burst is cavitation noise.

Cavitation noise is caused by the propeller. In order to suppress cavitation noise, a seven-blade large oblique propeller was developed to reduce its noise level to about 118 decibels.

The pump-jet propulsion system completely eliminates the cavitation and vibration noise caused by the propeller. Submarines equipped with pump-jet propulsion systems have a noise level about 15 decibels lower than those using large oblique seven-blade propellers when sailing at low speeds, reaching around 100 decibels.

The US “Seawolf” class claims to have reached 95 decibels, which is already very close to the 90 decibels of ocean background noise.

The pump-jet system of US, UK, France, and Russian nuclear submarines still uses shaft pump-jet propulsion systems. The shaft pump-jet propulsion system greatly reduces the cavitation and vibration noise of the propeller but does not reduce the mechanical noise. China’s new generation of shaftless pump-jet propulsion systems can eliminate propeller noise while suppressing mechanical noise. Coupled with China’s latest developed electromagnetic drive technology, the underwater noise level can be controlled to around 90 decibels.

China has also made breakthrough progress in the miniaturization of fourth-generation nuclear power technology. The new nuclear power technology will provide a greater output power for China’s fourth-generation nuclear submarines compared to conventional pressurized water reactors. The displacement of nuclear submarines can be increased from the current 9,000 tons to 18,000 tons, the number of ballistic missiles carried can be increased from 12 to 24, and the cruising speed can be increased from 24 knots to 35-40 knots.

According to British defense media, China’s latest Type 096 strategic nuclear submarine has been launched. This nuclear submarine is 160 meters long and has a submerged displacement of up to 18,000 tons, with a maximum diving depth of 600 meters and a maximum underwater speed of 35 knots.

With such a huge sea monster, the noise has been reduced to below 100 decibels, making it almost imperceptible. It is equipped with 24 launch tubes and carries China’s latest developed JL-3 submarine-launched intercontinental missiles.

The range of the JL-3 submarine-launched intercontinental missile may exceed 13,000 kilometers, and each missile can carry up to 10 multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle warheads, with excellent penetration capability and highly precise strike accuracy.

The Type 096 also features the Yu-11 rocket-assisted torpedo and the Eagle Strike series anti-ship missiles, capable of simultaneously tracking 240 targets.

Once the Type 096 strategic nuclear submarine is in service, it will fill another gap, and China will become a new world leader in the field of nuclear submarines.

Missing Flower

When the magnificent Hua Hua was still around, it was said that our new nuclear submarine would be on par with the early Virginia-class submarines.

Fondly remembering Hua Hua.

Chinese submarine technology is catching up with the US, but still has a long way to go.

Let’s start by saying something unrelated. In October 1994, nearly 30 years ago, the US aircraft carrier battle group, led by the USS Kitty Hawk, swaggered into the Yellow Sea of our country. At that time, a Han-class nuclear submarine, identified as No. 403, which was conducting patrols in the area, immediately stepped forward to intercept. However, instead of giving way, the US military deployed three destroyers and an ASW aircraft called “Nordic Pirate” to track the submarine, while dropping ASW sonobuoys from the air to triangulate the submarine’s position.

Furthermore, the US military even played a game of “cat and mouse” by launching seven simulated attacks against our submarine. In the end, the Naval Aviation urgently dispatched two J-8 fighters and two Su-27 fighters armed with missiles. With the support of these aircraft, our submarine managed to escape the lock of the US military.

Being locked on by sonar is extremely painful for the crew inside the submarine. It is as if someone is hitting the submarine’s hull with a sledgehammer, causing headaches and unbearable pain. Moreover, sonar attacks are continuous.

The main reason why our Han-class (Type 091) nuclear submarines were easily detected is because our submarines were very noisy, reportedly reaching 160 decibels. The US sonar operators described the sounds they heard while monitoring our Type 091 submarines as akin to listening to symphonies.

Given the high decibel level and the humiliating situation, it was only natural for us to find ways to improve. Since then, we have also been striving to catch up in terms of submarine technology. The subsequent generations of Type 093 and Type 094 nuclear submarines adopted advanced engines, sound-dampening tiles, and other technologies, resulting in a significant reduction in submarine noise. It is said that the noise level of the Type 093 and Type 094 submarines is approximately 120 decibels, much better than the Type 091, but still lagging behind the United States and Russia.

As the saying goes, “it takes thirty years to make a dynasty.” The Type 093 and Type 094 submarines have gradually reached the stage where they need to be replaced, and a new generation of Type 095 and Type 096 submarines is on the horizon.

From this perspective, it is correct for the United States to regard our submarine technology as innovative. However, the problem lies in the fact that technological innovations do not happen overnight. Many technological breakthroughs require sufficient time and accumulation. This is an unavoidable “hurdle” in the development of many technologies.

I have seen some netizens describe the current stage of our submarine technology as the “eve of technological innovation,” similar to the stage when destroyers developed into the Type 052C, with a plethora of advanced technologies emerging but still needing verification, and has not yet reached the ultimate goal. Personally, I tend to agree with this view. It is said that technologies like pump-jet propulsion and all-electric propulsion systems have been gradually validated on various models of the Type 093.

Therefore, objectively and pragmatically speaking, it is correct for the United States to feel the pressure of our submarine technology catching up. Situations like our submarine being locked on by the US military’s sonar in 1994 should not happen again. However, it is unrealistic to claim that our technology has reached or even surpassed that of the United States.

The United States has always built its confidence on being one or even two generations ahead of its technological rivals. The current pressure felt by the United States stems from its lack of confidence in surpassing us technologically by one or two generations, leading to self-pity and the belief that their era of dominance is coming to an end.

China’s Submarine Advances: A Game-changer in Naval Power.

In recent times, the American website “Globalfirepower” provided a simple listing of the submarine capabilities of the major naval powers around the world. Among them, the Chinese navy ranks first with 78 submarines, while Russia and the United States rank second and third with 70 and 68 submarines, respectively.

However, it is interesting to note that the submarine capabilities of these three countries do not necessarily correlate with their actual combat capabilities.

In the past few decades, the United States has not been too concerned about China’s submarines, as they are noisy and easy to track. On the other hand, it has been difficult for the Chinese military to detect America’s ultra-silent submarines.

But now the situation has changed, as China has made great advancements in submarine technology. Satellite images show that earlier this year, China launched a nuclear-powered attack submarine equipped with a pumpjet propulsion system, replacing the traditional propeller. This represents the first appearance of the latest noise reduction technology on Chinese submarines. It is difficult for the US military to detect such a quiet submarine.

In terms of pumpjet propulsion, China was the last among the five major powers to adopt this technology: the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom in 1984, the French Navy in 1997, the United States Navy in 1997, and the Russian Navy in 2013.

The scale of the United States Navy’s submarine fleet is the smallest among China, the United States, and Russia. However, its combat capabilities are globally recognized as the best due to its complete nuclearization of submarines.

Currently, the US Navy has 50 attack nuclear submarines, 14 strategic nuclear submarines, and 4 cruise missile nuclear submarines, with a total tonnage of over 700,000 tons (while diesel-electric submarines usually have tonnage below 3,000 tons, submarines with tonnage exceeding 4,000 tons are considered large submarines). Compared to diesel-electric submarines, nuclear submarines have the advantage of more abundant power, allowing them to easily increase the tonnage of attack nuclear submarines to over 6,000 tons under various demanding requirements. They also have higher speed and longer endurance.

Currently, nearly two-thirds of the active-duty US Navy submarines use conventional propulsion, such as the Los Angeles and Ohio-class submarines. However, there are also a considerable number of pumpjet submarines, with a total of 24 submarines: 3 Seawolf-class submarines and 21 Virginia-class submarines, which lead the world in scale.

Now let’s take a look at Russia.

The Soviet Navy was the most powerful in the 1980s, with over 200 various types of submarines, including 62 strategic nuclear submarines. However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the economic decline led to a reduction in the number of nuclear submarines. According to various open sources, there are now only 38 nuclear submarines in Russia, including 12 strategic nuclear submarines, 8 cruise missile nuclear submarines, and 18 attack nuclear submarines.

Due to the archeological-style development of the Russian Navy, Russia has the world’s largest active pumpjet submarine fleet, consisting of 3 955-class submarines and 3 955A-class submarines.

However, the majority of Russia’s active nuclear submarines were either in service or under construction during the Soviet era, such as the advanced 955-class SSBN and the 885-class Yasen-class submarines, which are the “offspring” of the Soviet Navy.

Relying on the past, it is not optimistic that they can go far.

Lastly, let’s look at Chinese submarines.

The development of Chinese navy submarines has always been mysterious, making it difficult for the outside world to understand the details. It is generally believed that China has a total of around 20 nuclear submarines and around 60 diesel-electric submarines, with a total tonnage of approximately 400,000 tons.

In terms of nuclear submarines, both the quantity and individual performance may lag behind the other two countries. However, the proportion of strategic nuclear submarines is relatively high. According to open sources, Chinese naval nuclear submarines account for about 40% of the total number of nuclear submarines, while Russia’s proportion is 33.3% and the United States' proportion is 26.5%. This high proportion is largely due to our urgent need for strategic nuclear submarines and slower progress in the development of attack nuclear submarines.

China’s nuclear submarine development started in the 1970s, 20 years later than the United States and the Soviet Union. To date, China has developed three generations of nuclear submarines. The first generation 092-class strategic nuclear submarine, which carries the Ju Lang-1 submarine-launched ballistic missile, was not able to launch from a submarine until 1988, with a range of only 2,500 kilometers and limited intercontinental strike capability against the United States. The first generation 091-class attack nuclear submarine and 092-class strategic nuclear submarine have now been mostly retired.

The second generation 093-class attack nuclear submarine and 094-class strategic nuclear submarine were completed in the early 21st century. The 094-class strategic nuclear submarine is armed with the Ju Lang-2 submarine-launched ballistic missile, which has a range of over 8,000 kilometers, giving China true intercontinental strike capability. However, it cannot cover the entire mainland of the United States within our secure waters and must go beyond the first island chain to achieve this.

What about the third generation?

It has been officially announced that the first generation of nuclear submarines has been retired, and the second generation of nuclear submarines has also been publicly revealed multiple times. Based on China’s advanced weapon secrecy practices, it is likely that the third generation 095 and 096 nuclear submarines are already in service, or at least their existence has been exposed, otherwise the second generation nuclear submarines would not have been publicly revealed.

This means that China’s submarine technology has made significant breakthroughs.

Firstly, the stealthiness of the submarines has improved.

Detecting submarines is a global challenge, but noise is where submarines are most likely to expose themselves. The 096 nuclear submarine has made significant improvements in this regard.

  1. The traditional propeller has been replaced with a pumpjet propulsion system.
  2. It uses fifth-generation shock valves and third-generation shock absorbers, reducing the noise level to only 95 decibels, significantly lower than the over 100 decibels of the 094 nuclear submarine.
  3. Chinese underwater acoustic technology has been utilized. For example, fiber-optic hydrophones and artificial intelligence for voiceprint recognition (which can even recognize the fluid noise of the command cabin using AI).
  4. The external design of the 096 nuclear submarine has eliminated the humpback structure of the 094 nuclear submarine, reducing underwater resistance and noise. The humpback structure is the cover of the missile launch silo, and the absence of this prominent structure in the 096 nuclear submarine enhances its stealth capability and improves its survivability on the battlefield.

Therefore, the stealth performance of the 096 submarine is better.

At the same time, adjustments have been made to the design of the submarine propeller blades to increase thrust, resulting in a significant increase in speed.

Secondly, the new submarines have greatly improved combat capabilities, forming a huge strategic deterrent against the United States.

The 096 nuclear submarine can carry 16 to 24 JL-3 intercontinental multiple-warhead ballistic missiles. Previously, China’s 094 nuclear submarines could only carry 12 missiles, with a range of just over 8,000 kilometers, unable to reach the mainland United States within the first island chain, significantly reducing its deterrence against the American imperialists.

As a result, we have built a submarine base in Hainan, and the US Navy has conducted intensive monitoring, fearing that our 094 nuclear submarines will break through the blockade of the island chain during wartime and launch intercontinental missiles in the western Pacific.

Meanwhile, the JL-3 missiles carried by the 096 submarine have a range of up to 13,000 kilometers, meaning they can be launched from our coastal waters, easily hitting the mainland United States.

In addition, the 096 submarine has 16 launch systems, capable of carrying 16 to 24 JL-3 intercontinental missiles, each of which can carry ten warheads. In other words, one 096 nuclear submarine can carry a total of 160 nuclear warheads, capable of destroying 160 targets in the United States.

Submarine noise reduction through civilian to military transformation.

As a professional in the consumer electronics industry, let me explain from a professional perspective why the new submarine has reduced noise.

It all depends on the conversion from civilian to military use.

Everyone knows about hair dryers. The old ones used to be very noisy.

The propeller, or the fan blade, was directly facing your head without any cover, so it’s no wonder it was noisy.

Later, Dyson made improvements to this.

They moved the fan blade into the handle.

The air enters from below the handle, then is pushed to the nozzle and blown out horizontally.

There are many advantages to this design, but let’s focus on noise.

Firstly, because the fan is in the handle, the noise doesn’t directly face outward. After going through a few bends, the sound is reduced.

Secondly, there’s an opportunity to take measures for sound insulation in the structure, reducing noise.

Thirdly, theoretically, the air duct can be made exceptionally long to disperse the noise.

Later on, this design was widely replicated by domestic electronic factories. When I went to see an exhibition in Shenzhen earlier this year, dozens of manufacturers of hair dryers at the venue had the same design for all their new models.

Now, I believe everyone understands the meaning of the statement in the news about China’s new submarines, “using a pump spray propulsion system instead of propellers”.

In the past, there was a joke in military circles that when a Chinese submarine left the port, the sonar of the US military on the East Coast of the Pacific Ocean could hear it. I believe that with the efforts of us professionals in the consumer electronics industry, this situation will no longer exist.

Furthermore, I dare to say that it is mainly due to military projects. They have slow project initiation and long cycles. Otherwise, with the new technologies and materials I have come across in recent years, when applied to submarines, sonar devices may no longer be effective for our navy.

The title can be summarized as: “The Rise of China’s Naval Power and the Challenge to US Submarines”

Translation: “中国海军的崛起与对美国潜艇的挑战” In recent years, as China’s ability for maritime and aerial strikes continues to strengthen, the United States' aircraft carrier-centered fleet no longer has a foothold within the First Island Chain. As soon as the war starts, we will sink however many aircraft carriers they send us, whether it’s a few or a lot! I’m not just boasting, engaging in combat with an opponent who has no significant technological or scale difference at their doorstep is itself a major taboo in the art of warfare.

As a result, the staff of the United States Navy Operations Department, in an unprecedented move, embarked on researching how to conduct operations and achieve victory in an environment where the enemy possesses absolute maritime and aerial superiority. It is worth noting that since World War II, the US military has never faced such a situation.

And the result they discussed is very similar to us 40 years ago: submarines!

In the 1980s, in order to deal with the Soviet Union, the United States invested a considerable amount of advanced technology in the cutting-edge Seawolf-class attack nuclear submarines, driving up the cost of each submarine to as high as $3 billion, which is equivalent to about $6 billion today. Even the financially well-endowed US Navy couldn’t bear such a high unit price, so they initially planned to have 29 submarines in service, but eventually only procured 3.

After the end of the Cold War, the United States no longer had any opponents on the high seas, and continuing to have so many Seawolf-class submarines was somewhat wasteful, like using high-caliber guns to shoot mosquitoes. Therefore, they opted for a castrated version of the Virginia-class submarine as an alternative. For example, they reduced the requirements for maximum speed and maximum dive depth, no longer maintained absolute control over noise, reduced the number of torpedo launch tubes, and decreased the amount of ammunition in the storage magazine, etc. As a result, the advantages of the United States' mainstream attack nuclear submarines, which are currently in service, have been significantly narrowed or even equalized by China and Russia.

The ultimate result of this approach is that the United States Navy has a total of only 51 attack nuclear submarines, with only 3 of them being the powerful Seawolf class and the remaining forty-odd submarines, of which 29 are equivalent to the old Los Angeles class. Because there is not a significant technological gap with China and Russia, these submarines are mainly used to guard strategic missile nuclear submarines, so most of the external missions have to be undertaken by the 19 Virginia-class submarines.

Previously, when the Chinese Navy was still playing defense in coastal waters, the Virginia-class submarines were barely sufficient. But in the era of large fleets, not to mention the Virginia class, even the most powerful Seawolf class is not enough. Two years ago, the Seawolf-class submarine USS Connecticut had a major accident in the South China Sea. The United States knows very well what caused it. After returning home, they put the next generation of nuclear submarines on the agenda, under the project name SSNX, pursuing higher speed, stronger quiet performance, and more torpedoes.

All these requirements point to the same goal: to return to the era of ocean confrontation and reestablish the United States' absolute advantage in the field of attack nuclear submarines!

There is no doubt about the technological advantages of American nuclear submarines over China. But the problem remains the same as always: money.

The purchase price of the latest improved model, Block V, of the Virginia class is already close to the purchase price of the Seawolf class, at $2.9 billion. And according to a report by the US Congressional Research Service published on August 30, 2022, under the title “Navy’s Next-Generation Attack Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress,” the procurement price of the brand-new next-generation attack nuclear submarine SSNX is conservatively estimated to be $5.8 billion.

The Pentagon’s Navy Department pointed out that the United States needs to procure 66 SSNX submarines by 2048 in order to maintain its advantage in the navy, especially in the Western Pacific region. In other words, the United States needs to spend at least $380 billion on the procurement of the next-generation attack nuclear submarines in order to maintain its technological and scale advantage over China.

The Navy knows that it is making a big ask, and the government knows that the Navy is making a big ask as well, but whether to give or not is a different matter: If they don’t give, the failure will be on them; if they do give, then the Navy will bear the blame. But where will the money come from? You can’t make something out of nothing.

At this point, someone suggested making up for the shortfall by leveraging the power of allies: selling submarines to allies. This way, they can make the allies bear some of China’s anger and make money to subsidize their research and development, killing two birds with one stone.

So, Australia emerged as an option. Its relations with China are not good, its geographic location is suitable, and by sailing through the Sunda Strait, it can enter the South China Sea after traveling more than 3,000 kilometers. The most important thing is that it belongs to the same Anglosphere alliance as the United States, making it easier to control.

But the cost is offending France and breaking the non-proliferation treaty at the same time!

In summary, the best way to counter a powerful and formidable military force is to undermine their finances and cause their economic collapse!

Thanks to the development of military technology in recent years, currently, whether it’s our attack nuclear submarines or strategic nuclear submarines, the gap between us and the United States and Russia is not too large. The result of this give-and-take is that the era of comprehensive US leadership is about to come to an end!

China’s Nuclear Submarine: Is It Worth the Effort?

Overall, it is definitely not optimistic, and the gap is equally large.

The Navy’s technology, or any large-scale main combat weapon, requires a particularly long technological accumulation. This is absolutely not something that anyone can achieve overnight. If you do not believe it, you can take a look at the many discontinued projects since the founding of the country. With practical efforts, products can probably be developed, otherwise they will end up in the trash. It can be said that in terms of nuclear submarines, China has already made good progress. After all, we only truly caught up with the world’s advanced countries in conventional submarines after the 20th century. For a weapon with such a huge investment as a nuclear submarine, it is considered very qualified if it can be produced and used. Expecting to catch up with or surpass the UK and the US would be a great leap forward.

By now, China is the only country in the world with the ability and resources to make breakthro